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Duration: 6 hours

Kronstadt is a Russian naval port town, located on Kotlin Island, 30 km west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. It is under the administration of the federal city of Saint Petersburg and is also its main port. Kronstadt was founded by Peter the Great, who took the island of Kotlin from the Swedes in 1703. Kronstadt was thoroughly refortified in the 19th century. The old three-decker forts, which formerly constituted the principal defences of the place, and defied the Anglo-French fleets during the Crimean War, became of secondary importance. From the plans of Eduard Totleben a new fort, Constantine, and four batteries were constructed to defend the principal approach, and seven batteries to cover the shallower northern channel. The town itself is surrounded with an enceinte. Sights. Naval Cathedral; St Ioann of Kronstadt, one of the most venerated Russian saints, served there as a priest from 1855-1908; The naval hospital, the British seamen's hospital (established in 1867), the civic hospital, admiralty (founded 1785), arsenal, dockyards and foundries, school of marine engineering, and the English church. The Kronstadt Sea Fortress used to be considered the most fortified port in the world. Among the most important surviving forts are the Fort Konstantin, the biggest in the Gulf of Finland; the Fort Rif on the western shore of the island; and the particularly well-preserved Chumnoy Fort (Plague Fort). The largest and the newest of the forts, constructed at the beginning of the 20th century, is Fort Totleben, named after Eduard Totleben.


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